Routine vs. Creative work (Stanford Leading Innovation notes)

Bob Sutton: Simplified: Innovation = Creativity + Implementation

Diego Rodriguez (IDEO) (to clients): What is your space for failing? (also, what are the acceptable forms of failure in your organisation?) Note. Rodriguez now prefers ‘accelerated learning’ to failing (or ‘rapid learning’ rather than ‘rapid failing’).

Avoid a single ‘prototyping/ innovation room’ and encourage others think anywhere, anytime and hold ‘generative’ meetings when necessary (i.e. meetings that actually generate innovation, and are linked to learning).

Try to reduce the friction between a desire to go build something better, and all the excuses, questions, authorities and other organisational constraints, to make it happen

Steve Jobs: Its easy to kill lousy ideas. To be a great company, you need to kill most of the good ideas too (Sutton contrasts this with the cluttered approach of Yahoo)

Need to look at problems in a different way – e.g. the kid can’t reach the vending machine coin-slot (keep in mind re disability/ design), getting submariners to exhale while surfacing vs. equipment, NCR printing of both sides of a receipt for Walmart.

Perry Klebahn: Knowing (and communicating) when you’re doing BAU vs. Innovation, e.g. a calendar that shows an item of creative work, who’s doing it, how it sits with BAU, what the expected results are

Perry Klebahn (2):Skunk works tend to fail, as ‘not invented here’ or you can be unraveling BAU on a daily basis. You need people to feel part of it (demo progress, milestones, etc. ‘What’s in development’ news). The best approach seems to be a sort ongoing negotiation between BAU and innovation

Diego Rodriguez: Mind of the child technique, to balance ‘wisdom’ in design (‘curious, unafraid, living in the moment’ vs. ‘asking great questions’)

Diego Rodriguez: His 21st principle (in draft) Just Do It/ Enjoy the Road (I think he is thinking on actualised version of ‘Knowledge is the capacity to act’ (Sveiby)

Mauria Finlay (Netscape>AOL>Good>eBay>PayPal>Citrus Lane

Mauria Finlay: Careful not to mess too much with those (BAU)  processes that are deeply embedded with the user (e.g. entering credit card details) but innovate the less explored  or  established aspects (e.g. browsing, selecting content).

With packing, it’s better to have a postmortem and redesign the process than than to attempt to reform the process on the fly

Try to establish a baseline and track your innovations from that point

Watch out for intense cognitive load. Have you made the process too hard to follow?

Steve Jobs: I like living at the intersection of the humanities and technology

Diego Rodriguez: Yes, live on the intersection. Great designers are great readers. Great design is about pattern recognition, based on rich life experiences

Mix up your influences, follow people who’re a little different on Twitter, read Monocle magazine for its different perspectives

Diego Rodriguez: If you’re not failing you’re not tying hard enough. What if I fail every day? Micro failures to drive macro success

Frans Johansen – The Medici Effect (Harvard). How Renaissance painters, sculptors, poets, philanthropists, scientists, philosophers, financiers, and architects, shaped an era of innovation… contributions of disruptive innovation from people without having industry experience in that industry, such as Darwin (a geologist)  collecting bird species while giving poor notes to John Gould, who ultimately provided the ornithology knowledge.

Links

The Future of Work and how Trump’s win shows how vital the arts and humanities are

THE FUTURE OF WORK

Mithunkumar Ramalingam and Brian Bailey

The second half of 2016 has seen a number of reports and papers suggesting emergent disruption of the structural composition of the Australian workforce, largely through a convergence of technologies that seem likely to drive the automation of work. What might be the implications on teaching and learning practices at the University of Sydney in the midst of its undergraduate curriculum transformation program? What, if any, are the implications for the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences?

  • With an aim of sparking conversations, this paper briefly explores:
  • The automation of work and the changing composition of the labour force.
  • A shifting of focus in graduate qualities and curriculum design and delivery.  The role of the Humanities in the future.

The Automation of Work

In their August 2016 quarterly update, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) highlights the current Australian labour force is dominated by the services sector and, to a lesser extent, construction, while noting the significant and ongoing shift away from manufacturing. This structural change is indicative of the trend of jobs being impacted by technology, especially automation; as improvements in technology allow the manufacturing industry to produce the same levels of output, but with fewer workers (The Australian Industry Report (2014).

Frey and Osborne (2013) examine the impact of computerisation and automation on US labour market outcomes, and found about 47% of US employment is at risk of computerisation. The jobs at most risk of being automated are procedural and require little cognitive and creative input, roles prevalent in manufacturing.

Given the current Australian workforce composition, with over 62% of workers employed in service industries, the risk of a mass shift of human capital towards computerisation appears less pronounced than the US. The assumption that workplace automation will affect services and construction less than manufacturing is itself now under serious question (Frey and Osborne, 2013). For example, retail, a form of service which employs 10.2% of the US labour force, is regarded as highly likely (92% likelihood) to be computerised, according to Frey and Osborne (2013).

Historically, as technology advances and develops, labour also adapts to the changes. Technology has tended to disrupt dull, repetitive jobs, in favour of roles better suited to more human qualities. Bank tellers have given way to automation but a rising demand for financial services professionals has emerged as financial institutions have employed people and technology in combination to sell more products. Similarly, a decline of data entry clerks has been offset against an increase in data scientists. Computerisation has and will continue to lead to the redundancy of certain professions, but also gives rise to new ones. Table 1 below outlines some ‘at risk of obsolescence’ professions. All these have been impacted by technological advancements, especially automation.

While technology appears to create more, or as many new jobs as those destroyed, it is not clear that will always be the case. Even allowing for the number of new jobs created, there is an increasing velocity in change, and it is not always those displaced that will take the new jobs; there will always be a structural deficit as workers need to re-skill, and/ or re-locate. A portion of each wave of change that loses its hold on the full-time labour market.

Shifting Focus of Graduate Qualities and Curriculum Transformation

The labour market is evolving into a more technology-dependent system, so for labour market outcomes to remain strong, education and professional development must be equally dynamic.

The Data61 report, Tomorrow’s Digitally Enabled Workforce, talks about gearing educational programs to the needs of future employers. Essentially, arguing education and training should be more focused towards the skills that are relevant in the future, and have a lower chance of being automated. Data61 and Frey and Osborne concur the key soft skills for a future-proof employee are those that require social interaction and emotional intelligence, the most difficult skills to automate.

This is reflected in Table 1, where the emerging/new professions are those that require cognitive, problem solving and creative ability.

At risk, obsolete and emerging professions

At Risk (‘On the Way Out’) Obsolete Emerging/New

  • Telemarketer, Photo film development technician vs. Big data architect
  • Real estate agent, Video rental store clerk vs. UI/ UX designer
  • Mathematical technician, Bank teller vs. IOS and android developer
  • Library technician, Cartographer vs. Personal trainer
  • Legal secretary, Switchboard operator vs. 3D printer operator
  • Farmer, Data entry clerk vs. Drone operator
  • Locomotive engineer/ train driver vs. Digital marketing specialist
  • Accounting clerk vs. Driverless car engineer

The automation of work has been one factor in a shift in focus of the outcomes of Higher Education institutions – expressed as ‘graduate qualities’ – and the teaching and learning process, itself; with an emerging shift from content-based learning to skills-based learning. This is reflected in the new graduate qualities identified in the University of Sydney’s 2016-20 Strategic Plan, where the focus is on those human skills designed to ‘future-proof’ students. Critical thinking, problem solving, cultural competence and inventiveness are all skills that are difficult to automate. These new graduate qualities are a part of developing a broader undergraduate curriculum aimed at building on content knowledge foundations, with skills for enquiry, communication, critical thinking and data analysis. The effort necessary to transform the university’s curriculum, including the way it is designed, delivered and consumed, is in large part to support the graduate qualities identified as critical for future jobs.

What’s Next?

The University of Sydney’s graduate employability ranking for 2017 is 4th in the world (Munro 2016), suggesting employers do see the relevance of skills in current graduates of the University of Sydney, but the future of work suggests little time for resting upon the laurels of past achievement.

For these new graduate qualities to be effective, the desired outcomes must be reflected in teaching feedback and assessment practices, as it is assessments that are the drivers of learning for students (Flipcurric 2016). There should be less emphasis on passing exams and more attention given “to confirming that what graduates are actually capable of doing, is going to be of benefit to their professional work and, more broadly, to the social, cultural, economic and environmental sustainability of our planet” (Flipcurric 2016).

The Role of the Humanities in the Future

In response to an oversupply and a decline in the demand for engineers, the Department of Education and Training’s 2017/18 Skilled Occupations List has been revised now exclude many engineering professions, such as civil, mechanic and agricultural engineering. When considering this in conjunction with labour market trends, it seems clear there is an increasing opportunity for the Humanities and creative arts to thrive, as our species’ most future-proof skills are intrinsically the most ‘human’.

As more tasks are transferred from labour to capital, there comes the risk of under-employment within the economy. This begs the question, what’s going to happen when there’s more free time than work? On one extreme, this could result in a dystopia of falling household incomes for those without capital. A more hopeful outcome is that we see an increase in leisure time, as technology growth reduces the time people need to earn the same level of real income. What will people do with this leisure time? Could we encourage creativity, and reinstate culture and art into the mainstream of modern society? This would hardly be the worst outcome.

In this time of political uncertainty, people are looking for alternatives to existing socio-political systems. The outcome of the US federal election and the Brexit referendum highlights an underlying issue of world leaders and their ability (or inability) to understand the needs of the people; these election outcomes echo the voices of those who feel like they have no voice.

The Humanities and social sciences, essentially the study of human relationships and culture, are the medium through which we can understand this modern ‘disconnect’, and change the notion of what leadership means today to something more meaningful than a reaction to populist loud voices.

The Future of Work

In the face of the precarious nature of our labour force future, our leaders need the Humanities to ‘synthesise complexity with meaning and emotion’ (Shultz 2016) and to engage the people in culture and the arts, and everything that is ‘human’.

2016 has been quite a year, what will 2017 bring?

the_future_of_work

95 Theses on Innovation — Lee Vinsel

via 95 Theses on Innovation — Lee Vinsel

Vinsel spoke yesterday at the SOH Festival of Dangerous ideas. It was a slightly annoying session – I wanted to believe and disbelieve (in innovation) at the same time. In his talk, I felt Vinsel argued one-sidedly the dichotomy between ‘innovators’ and ‘maintainers’, without acknowledging the sense I felt all the way through, that it’s a question of balance of both (and more). My  concerns were partially addressed on the day – Vinsel noted his comments were ‘polemical’, but better mollified in the comments of his original post, where (in response to comments about the Maker movement) he notes, ‘This work is polemical obviously, and my strategy in it was to pull together things that aren’t juxtaposed frequently enough… some of what I say is unfair–or at least is only partial–but that’s the nature of the genre.

My feeling is that innovation remains very valid, but I share a lot of Vinsel’s concerns about both its (1) being used as a panacea (and/ or proxy) for many other (critically important) things, and (2) the increasing use of innovation jargon/ rhetoric, to obscure what is really going on.

So, I feel that a better understanding of Vinsel’s concerns is going to help me a lot better in understanding and performing my day job, and a few things besides.

Paul Gilbert on Vinsel and digital innovation

More to come, I hope.

Final Countdown. Daniel Petre

Attended a thought-provoking Florence Guild talk at Sydney Work Club on 2 June.

Daniel Petre (from a 2009 bio in The Age) ‘If you plan on being anything less than you are capable of being, then you will probably be unhappy all the days of your life (Maslow).’

I’ve been aware of Daniel Petre since the early 90s and his success as Microsoft’s first non-US VP) his work in the early days of e-Commerce, read one of his books (The Lucky Country?), his philanthropy and that he now works in the innovation/ funding/ startup space. While that ‘light’ take is essentially accurate, the thought of hearing Petre’s thoughts was enough to make me choose this talk over Mike Jay’s Media Social gig at Taylor Square at the same time. And that was a big call.

This isn’t a full recount of Petre’s talk, I wanted to listen and engage, not report.

Petre sat right back by the window, at the back of the presentation space. Just him, on a stool, and a handful of notes.

It turned out the the talk was essentially a take on the ‘Rise of the machines’, and so notes would have been redundant for the bulk of the session, but a couple of points below (paraphrasing for future reference, in the absence of notes):

  • People are pretty lousy at forecasting and understanding what’s going on, especially with technology (e.g. McKinsey projected a total 990,000 mobiles in the US in the 90s, wrong by an order of magnitude)
  • Elon Musk (the only man to have founded three billion dollar companies), Stephen Hawkins and (Petre’s old boss) Bill Gates have all said mankind has let the genie out of the bottle with technology, especially AI
  • There are a number of advanced robotics programs in existence (and it seems they all live on YouTube. Petre commented on some, not all of these)
  • Read Nick Bostrom’s ‘Superintelligence’ for a non-Kurzweil non- technologist take on our AI and SI future
  • It’s unclear what changes will be but (approx.) 30-50% of jobs lost to technology will not be replaced ‘one to one’
  • The ‘West’ will be hit hardest – let’s face it, if you’re in Africa on a tiny income, a reduction is going to impact your way of life less vs. our leveraged, technology-centric, consumer society
  • People will need to get – literally – smarter to compete – grow their individual (and collective) IQ
  • When employers give credit to Coursera qualifications to the same extent as traditional univeristies, the latter will be in big trouble
  • Qualities of critical thinking, creativity and empathy will be the ones to endure/ cultivate (Petre sees a larger role for human carers, post automation (Autogeddon?)
  • There may well be a ‘right-sizing’ in terms of human population

Petre is aware of (and I think) supportive of UBI and cited an example of where a social experiment favoured UBI but was quashed by a (let’s call it) a conservative backlash. Very few of the FG audience seemed aware of UBI, with one person calling out, ‘Work for the dole’

I had to leave before the Q&A finished as Eve arrived early for a trip to the Vivid lights, but it was Petre that was the more illuminating in the end

Work Club Video interview from the same day and Soundcloud podcast

Paperback writer. 12 years of reading

Sitting on the bed on NYE 2000, reading a trashy paperback , I decided to record what I read, at least for a while.

In some ways I wish I’d kept more details, but then I would have stopped sooner. It’s fun to see them in the order they were read, to see the clusters and so on. Maybe one day, I’ll map them against the course of my life, jobs, homes, family events, and so on. Or not 🙂

2001

Cryptonomicon – Neal Stephenson

Idoru – William Gibson

About a Boy – Nick Hornby

East and West – Chris Patten

The Last Precinct – Patricia Cornwall

Riding the Rap – Elmore Leonard

In Good Company – Cohen and Prusak

The Mile High Club – Kinky Friedman

Starship Titanic – Terry Gilliam

The Diamond Age – Neal Stephenson

Faster – James Gleick

7 Habits of highly effective people – Stephen Covey

Area 7 – Matthew Riley

Speed – James Gleick

Chaos – James Gleick

Visual display of quantitative information – Edward R Tufte

Dead white males (play) – David Williamson

Rendezvous with Rama – Arthur C Clarke

How to be good – Nick Hornby

2002

USSA – David Maddsen

Word of honour – Nelson DeMille

Detox – Penelope Sachs

Plan your work, work your plan – James Sheridan

The true history of the Kelly Gang – Peter Carey

Greenwich killing time – Kinky Friedman

The Bear and the Dragon – Tom Clancy

The Trusted Advisor – David Maister

The Book of Excellence – Byrd Bagget

Crossing the Chasm – Geoffrey Moore

Steppin on a Rainbow – Kinky Friedman

The Quiet American – Graham Greene

French country cooking – Elizabeth David

Selected poems – Robert Lowell

Soul on ice – Eldridge Cleaver

The springboard – Stephen Denning

The Shadow Man – John Katzenbach

Among equals – David Maister

History of Western Philosophy – Bertrand Russell

History of Australia – Manning Clark

2003

That ole ace in the hole – Annie Proulx

The Spike – Damian Broderick

The Charisma Effect – Desmond Guilfoyle

Snow Crash – Neal Stephenson

Consilience – Edward O Wilson

How to win friends and influence people – Dale Carnegie

Postmodernism for beginners – Jim Powell

Love song of J Edgar Hoover – Kinky Friedman

Surely you’re joking Mr Feynman – Richard Feynman

Red Rabbit – Tom Clancy

Blast from the past – Kinky Friedman

Harry Potter & the philosophers stone – JK Rowling

Zero Space – Frank Lepanne Deprez & Rene Tissen

Harry Potter & the chamber of secrets – JK Rowling

Brideshead revisted – Evelyn Waugh

Harry Potter & the prisoner of Azkeban – JK Rowling

Winning is kids’ stuff – Denis Baker

Harry Potter & the Goblet of Fire – JK Rowling

Teaching soccer fundamentals – Nelson McAvoy

Harry Potter & the Order of the Pheonix – JK Rowling

Contact – Carl Sagan

Soccer skills – Michael Owen

The Universe – DK Books

God Bless John Wayne – Kinky Friedman

A short history of nearly everything – Bill Bryson

2004

The teeth of the tiger – Tom Clancy

Mind of a manager, soul of a leader – Craig Hickman

The knowledge web – James Burke

The Silmarillion – JRR Tolkien

Zarafa – Michael Allin

Equation for evil – Philip Caputo

The wisdom of crocodiles – Paul Hoffman

The Da Vinci code – Dan Brown

Catcher in the rye – JD Salinger

For Esme – With love and squalor  – JD Salinger

31 songs – Nick Hornby

Armadillos and old lace – Kinky Friedman

Going solo – Roald Dahl

Weapons of choice – John Birmingham

Conversations with Feynman – Leonard Mlodinow

Past Mortem – Ben Elton

In Patagonia – Bruce Chatwin

2005

Bridget Jones Edge of Reason – Helen Fielding

Designated Targets – John Birmingham

Notes from a big country – Bill Bryson

2006

The Last Empire – Gore Vidal

Maximum Bob – Elmore Leonard

Zodiac – Neal Stephenson

Imperial Ambitions – Noam Chomsky

Inventing a nation – Gore Vidal

Dis Information – Dr Karl Kruszenicki

Freakonomics – Steven D Levitt and Stephen J Dubner

Harry Potter and the half blood prince – JK Rowling

Unconscious civilisation – John Ralston Saul

Tintin in South America –  Herge

Everything bad is good for you – Tony Johnston

Consulting Demons – Lewis Pinault

Political ideas – David Thomson (ed)

Final Conflict WW2.3 – John Birmingham

A long way down – Nick Hornby

The Riders – Tim Winton

A midsummer night’s dream – William Shakespeare

Ice station – Matthew Reilly

The business – Iain Banks

Things fall apart – Chinua Achebe

The Time Travellers – Simon Guerrier

Tricky business – Dave Barry

Our days are few – Martin Godleman

Revolution in the revolution – Regis Debray

2007

The Google Story – David Vise & Mark Malseed

Chronicles – Bob Dylan

Going Postal – Terry Pratchett

Small Gods – Terry Pratchett

Mort – Terry Pratchett

Statistics without tears – Derek Rowntree

Clockers – Richard Price

Willie’s Bar and Grill – Rob Hirst

Dr Who: Venderkerken’s Children – Christopher Bulis

Contact Zero – David Wolstencroft

1776 – David McCullough

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – JK Rowling

Light in August – William Faulkner

Guards! Guards! – Terry Pratchett

Jingo – Terry Pratchett

The New CIO Leader – Marianne Broadbent

The Bourne Legacy – Eric Von Lustbader

Making Money – Terry Pratchett

My Place – Sally Morgan

Carpentaria – Alexis Wright

Beach Road – James Patterson

2008

Blind Faith – Ben Elton

Jack and Jill – James Patterson

Odd One Out – Monica McInerny

H+ – Edward de Bono

Do I get a drop? – Doug Anderson

Flawless Consulting – Peter Block

The Big Bad Wolf – James Patterson

Cross – James Patterson

The Ambler Warning – Robert Ludlum

2009

The Reader – Bernhard Schlink

The Colour of Magic – Terry Pratchett

The Tipping Point – Malcolm Gadwell

Extremely Close and Incredibly Loud – Jonathan Safran Foer

Blink – Malcolm Gladwell

The Meeting of the Waters –

Caisal Mor

The Time Travellers Wife – Audrey Nifenegger

Perfume – Patrick Suskind

State of Fear – Michael Crichton

City of Falling Angels – John Berendt

Breath – Tim Winton

The Uncommon Reader – Alan Bennett

Atonement – Ian McEwan

Saturday – Ian McEwan

Bombproof – Michael Robotham

The household guide to dying – Deborah Adelaide

The Leopard – Tomasi da Lapadusa

No 1 Ladies Detective Agency – Alexander McCall Smith

The white tiger – Aravinda Adiga

Surveillence – Jonathan Raban

The pleasures and sorrows of work – Alain De Botton

The missing symbol – Dan Brown

The meaning of recognition – Clive James

High Voltage RocknRoll – Christie Elezer

The complete polysyllabic spree – Nick Hornby

Lost in translation – screenplay – Sofia Coppola

Into the wild – Jon Krakauer

Shakespeare – Bill Bryson

Clive James – North Face of Soho

Hamlet & Rosencrantz and Guidenstern Are Dead Study Guide – Lloyd Cameron & Rebecca Barnes

Life’s a pitch – Stephen Bailey & Roger Mavity

Juliet Naked – Nick Hornby

A Week At The Airport – Alain De Botton

The lost continent – Bill Bryson

2010

More than a game – John Major

Not a star – Nick Hornby

How Proust can change your life –  Alain De Botton

The Hours – Michael Cunningham

The Art of Travel – Alain De Botton

In a sunburned country – Bill Bryson

An Education – Nick Hornby

Dance, Dance, Dance – Huraki Murikami

Angels and Demons – Dan Brown

My Favourite Year – Nick Hornby (Ed)

Cosmopolis – Don DeLillo

Through the Land of Fire – Ben Pester

Beautiful Evidence – Edward Tufte

Memory of Running – Ron McLarty

Imperium – Robert Harris

Julius Caesar –  William Shakespeare

Virginia Woolf in 90 mins – Paul Strathern

Ancient Rome – Peter Ackroyd

The other hand – Chris Cleave

History of Philosophy – Bryan Magee

Mix Tape – Thurston Moore

Amsterdam – Ian McEwan

Consider Phlebas – Iain M Banks

State building – Francis Fukayama

Consolations of Philosophy -Alain De Botton

Trim – Matthew Flinders

On Reading – Marcel Proust

Enough Rope 2 – Andrew Denton

And Another Thing – Eoin Colfer

Social Media 101 – Chris Brogan

Confederates in the Attic – Tony Horwitz

Norwegian Wood – Huraki Murikami

Rework – Jason Fried & David Heinemier Hansson

Bon Appetit – Peter Mayle

Solar – IanMcEwan

On Chesil Beach –  IanMcEwan

Life studies – Robert Lowell

The Boat – Nam Le

Red Dog – Louis de Bernieres

The World Is Flat – Thomas L Friedman

High Fidelity – Nick Hornby

Zero History – William Gibson

Click – Various

The Inheritance of Loss – Kiran Desai

The Lacuna – Barbara Kingsolver

HBR: On Creativity, Innovation and Renewal – Hesselbien and Johnston (EDS)

Enduring Love – Ian McEwan

Romulus My Father – Raimond Gaita

Design Thinking – Gavin Ambrose and Paul Harris

The Comfort of Strangers – Ian McEwan

When Managers Rebel – David Courpasson & Jean-Claude Theonig

2011

Business Model Generation – Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneurs

The back of the napkin – Dan Roam

Captain’s Innings – Keith Fletcher

Devil May Care – Sebastian Faulkes (as Ian Fleming)

Star Trek Mission’s End – Ty Templeton and Stephen Molnar

Away – Michael Gow

Brand Media Strategy – Antony Young

Ten Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet – David Mitchell

Hell Island – Matthew Reilly

Atlantic – Simon Winchester

After Dark – Huraki Murikami

Do androids dream of electric sheep? Philip K Dick

Homage to Barcelona – Colm Toibin

Gaudi – Yukio Futagawa

Javier Mariscal – Designing the New Spain – Emma Dent Coad

Essays In Love – Alain de Botton

Phuket Encounter – Adam Skolnick

Nick and Norah’s Infinite Playlist – Rachel Cohn and David Leviston

Heroes of a Texas Childhood – Kinky Friedman

Generation A – Douglas Coupland

Bossypants – Tina Fey

Mythology – Edith Hamilton

The Information – James Gleick

Without Warning – John Birmingham

The Arrivals – Meg Mitchell Moore

A Short Walk In The Hindu Kush – Eric Newby

Reamde – Neal Stephenson

2012

Jimmy Corrigan The Smartest Kid – Chuck Ware

11.22.63 – Stephen King

On bullshit – Harry G Frankfurt

The Seed – Kate Mulvany

Hela – the Henrietta Lacks story – Rebecca Skloot

Spice – Ian Hemphill

Song lines – Bruce Chatwin

The Paris Option – Robert Ludlum

Truth – Peter Temple

The Bicycle Book – Bella Bathurst

Marching Powder – Rusty Young

Death of a cruise ship – Tom O’Connor