A hybrid of both AR and VR, Mixed Reality (MR) is far more advanced than Virtual Reality because it combines the use of several types of technologies including sensors, advanced optics and next gen computing power. All of this technology bundled into a single device will provide the user with the capability to overlay augmented holographic digital content into your real-time space
If you’d asked farmers a few hundred years ago what skills their kids would need to thrive, it wouldn’t have taken long to answer. They’d need to know how to milk a cow or plant a field. General skills for a single profession that only changed slowly—and this is how it was for most humans through history.
But in the last few centuries? Not so much.
Finland recently shifted its national curriculum to a new model called the “phenomenon-based” approach. By 2020, the country will replace traditional classroom subjects with a topical approach highlighting the four Cs—communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration.
These four skills “are central to working in teams, and a reflection of the ‘hyperconnected’ world we live in today,” Singularity Hub editor-in-chief David Hill recently wrote.
Embedded in a sphere of steel and glass, the “Rosetta Disk” is a physical disk containing over 13,000 pages etched with information on over 1,500 different human languages. The disk itself is made of electroformed nickel, contains useful information down to the nanoscale, was built to withstand multiple generations, and only requires basic technology to read—a microscope.
Knowing doing gap. A decision by itself means nothing
Turning knowledge into action
Avoiding the smart‐talk trap
- Smart talk happens now, smart action happens later
- Some organisations and bosses make things worse by rewarding smart talk rather than smart action
Don Peterson, ex CEO of Ford, credited with keeping the company alive in the 80s, ‘Ford was so desperate to save the company, that even though I’m a boring guy, they put somebody in charge who actually knew about cars’
Put people in management positions who understand the work (they’re less likely to engage in rhetoric and get to the nitty gritty)
No whining! Stop the complaints, Step up the action
Recreational whining vs. bitter deep complaining
Simple language and repetition: “I keep it Sesame Street Simple.” A.G. Lafley, Procter & Gamble (especially for instructions). Say the thing simply, over and over, till it gets done
Simple strategies are easier to implement Apple products, circa July 1997: “We couldn’t even tell our friends which ones to buy” Steve Jobs
Perry Klebahn: Keep momentum, keep focus, get good ideas out. Use resources well. Focus and flair. Be clear about process (the ideas don’t necessarily go away. Respect the work and keep the ideas for later (Teddy Ruskin left on the shelf until Toy Story 3))
Mauria Finlay: It’s brutal. Getting things done in large organisations is brutally hard. Just keep doing it. You have to believe enough to make it happen
Start-ups are about deciding on what to actually expend effort on. It seems like people can’t have more than two priorities at a time
Three final lessons
The Best Single Diagnostic Question. What happens when people fail?
- There is no innovation or learning without failure.
- Do you forgive and remember?
- Failure sucks but instructs! (Trying is the first step to failure (Homer Simpson))
Innovation means SELLING, not just inventing, ideas, experiences, and things
- Why Robert Fulton gets credit for “inventing” the steamboat
- Thomas Edison’s greatest talent
What effects do you have on the people around you? After they interact with you, do they have more or less energy?
Building the team
Superstars aren’t lone geniuses or dazzling independent performers
The “lone inventor” is a myth: Great innovations happen in social/ teams and networks.
- Darwin’s network and team (esp. by correspondence, also a ‘PR’ team who defended his ideas)
- Thomas Edison’s lab (lousy inventor but great at building the lab and business)
- The duos that started HP, Sun, Yahoo!, and Google (Facebook, Zuckerberg and all)
Leader’s goal = the “product” at the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design: Creative Collaborators
Who are the real superstars?
- People who spread their ideas to others
- Borrow ideas from others (and give them credit)
- and help others succeed.
GE, IDEO, Genencor, McKinsey, and P&G – very different reward systems, all the same philosophy: If you’re a low performer and good team player supportive of culture, you’ll get chances. High performer undermine the team (and fail to collaborate), you’re out:
Cooperation and information sharing is not considered in compensation decisions – if people don’t do it, they just don’t get promoted. Former Procter & Gamble CEO A.G. Lafley
Diego Rodriguez: It’s tempting to judge against big picture goals but you’ve got to be careful not to take people out of the moment, delivering a great client experience right now. Grok the gestalt of the team. Intervene or not. 3 things to watch for in terms of enlightened action:
- Cold feet. Is something freaking the team out (of innovative behaviours and decisions)?
- Are they just trying to be busy? Assist with focus (or too much focus)
- There should be some angst, even fear in the room (maybe ask provocative questions)
Look for dignity, beauty, joy and elegance
Experts, novices, and mind of the child
Put more faith in novices, less in experts (and blend them together):
- Experts: People who know what has been done, what can be done, and what can’t be done. (but these opinions can be strongly held)
- The naïve: People who don’t know what can’t be done or is impossible to do.
- Variations: Bring in people who are experts on the “wrong” thing, or a related but different thing (Edison was famous for this, e.g. with the phonograph)
Google started off knowing too little about what they couldn’t do 🙂
Ditto Jobs and Wozniak (Home-brew computing company). Steve Markkula (adult supervision)
Zuckerberg relying on Sandberg for business smarts
Deal with the bad apples In the best teams “problem” members get quick negative feedback and warnings, and if reform fails, are expelled quickly. Leaders – formal and informal: don’t duck the dirty work.
Bad is stronger than good:
- “5 to 1 rule” for encounters in personal relationships and at work
- Eliminating the negative is more important than accentuating the positive
- Bad apples – including deadbeats, downers, and rude jerks – bring down performance 30% to 40% compared to teams that don’t have them
- Distraction and contagion
- You need to clarify the culture – create the guard-rails of the group
- Are the goals clear?
- Managers job is to focus the team on the key goals
Running the team
The case for Small and stable teams
J. Richard Hackman’s rule: “No work team should have membership in the double digits …. the number of performance problems a team encounters increases exponentially as team size increases.”
“Optimal” team size is 4.6 in one study – Navy Seals “fire teams” and McKinsey engagement teams have four members
“Apple also consciously tries to behave like a startup, most notably by putting small teams on crucial projects. To wit: just two engineers wrote the code for converting Apple’s Safari browser for the iPad, a massive undertaking.” Adam Lashinsky, Inside Apple
Stable membership linked to team performance:
- Surgical teams, semiconductor start‐ups, R&D teams, and flight cockpit crews
- NTSB: 73% of flight incidents occur during the crew’s first day together; 44% on their first flight
Innovation requires extreme optimism… punctuated by input from realists and pessimists
Why optimism? It reduces the failure rate! Emotions are contagious
The self‐fulfilling prophecy
- If you believe you can, you can
- If you believe you can’t, you can’t
“Confidence in nonsense is required.” Burt Rutan
Why innovation requires a few grumpy and pessimistic people:
- They are better at finding flaws
- They are better at pulling the plug, at stopping organizations from throwing good money after bad
Happy Worriers The best of both worlds?
David Kelley argues that the key to leading innovative work is finding ways to instill creative confidence in people. Ted Talk
Money as a motivator
Psychologists and economists can show you hundreds – really thousands – of studies that show people will work harder to obtain financial rewards. But there are two big problems:
- Getting the rewards right is REALLY hard
- Money turns us into selfish loners
Steve Kerr: On the Folly of Rewarding “A” While Hoping for “B”
The power of being ‘reminded’ of money (Apple try to keep it out of staffs’ thoughts)
Nine experiments by Kathleen Vohs (involving Monopoly money):
- Less likely to give others help
- Less likely to ask for help
- Sat further away from others
- More likely to choose to work alone Didn’t realize experiments were about money – but led to selfishness and self‐sufficiency
Doing interesting work itself. Dan Pink based on Drive Ted Talk
Research on 111 groups, all studying the same problem: Stand‐up meetings were 34% shorter but just as effective.
David Darragh, CEO of Reily Foods: Has a daily 15 minute stand‐up meeting with his top team: “The rhythm that frequency generates allows relationships to develop, personal ticks to be understood, stressors to be identified, personal strengths and weaknesses to be put out in the light of day, etc. The role of stand‐up meetings is not to work on strategic issues or even to resolve an immediate issue.”
Stand up every 20-30 minutes – cardio-vascular benefits
Learn how and when to fight
Innovation happens when people respect each other – but fight like crazy over ideas.
Hallmarks of effective creative abrasion
- Strong opinions, weakly held
- Fight as if you are right, listen as if you are wrong
‘I now disagree with my own standpoint. I was wrong, let’s get on using your view
In terms of creative work: “When two people in business always agree, one of them is unnecessary.” William Wrigley
Not so in operational work, you generally want agreement around routine work
Brad Bird of Pixar Director, The Incredibles and Ratatouille “I’ve been fired for being disruptive several times… but this is the first time I’ve been hired for it”
“Everyone will get humiliated and encouraged together.”
Don’t fight when generating ideas, such as when brainstorming
Stop fighting after the decision is made – it undermines implementation
Intel motto: Disagree and then commit
Bob Sutton: 4 keys to successful leadership considerations (Good boss, bad boss):
- Be in tune with your people
- Employ a ‘small wins’ strategy
- Have their backs
Even the best leaders seem to have a ‘weird’ self obsession, even when viewed in a constructive way. They want to understand what it means to work for them (i.e. they’re honing their empathy).
As a leader, ‘it’s not all about you – except when it is:
- Accept, you get more credit and more blame than anyone else. 10-20% of the input (for the team) but 50% of the ‘response’.
- Attention is directed up. The people you lead watch you rather than you watch them.
Watch out for the toxic tandem – the people who lead don’t know much about their staff, but the staff sure know about management (clueless managers).
Managers have surefire ‘tells’ that staff read.
Linda Hudson (CEO BAE Systems): …people are always watching, your example, your tone, confidence, how you carry yourself
Bob Sutton: A member of a baboon troop glances at the alpha male every 20-30 seconds.
Effects of giving people power:
- Focus on their own needs and concerns
- Focus little attention on the needs of others
- Act like the rules don’t apply to them
Who takes the last cookie, eats with their mouth open, leaves more crumbs? The leader
Bob Sutton: Some bosses live in a fool’s paradise (HBR blog item)
Diego Rodriguez: You need a suite of countermeasures:
- People to give you honest counsel (out the limelight)
- Stay mortal, display humility
- Maintain the reality and illusion that you’re in control
- David Kelly – when in a difficult situation. Ask 3 questions of others, then make the decision. Get perspectives and synthesise and decide yourself.
- Balance of backstage (thinking) and frontstagen performance.
- Learn to look happy while walking through the office – put things in perspective (on stage) to help maintain a positive environment
Mauria Finley: A ‘supportive hardass’. Does both way reference checks to share her quirks.
The best bosses are rated roughly average by followers on terms like competitive, aggressive, passive, and submissive – they are moderately assertive.
Push hard but not too hard
Bob Sutton: The best management is sometimes no management at all. The managers of the most innovative teams:
- Devote less attention to their people
- Allow them to act without asking for permission first
- Don’t enforce rules as consistently as managers of less innovative teams
“After you plant a seed in the ground, you don’t dig it up every week to see how it is doing.” — 3M’s William Coyne
Perry Klebahn: When do I let the team struggle or intervene? If people are cooperating, listening, etc. Leave it. Exception being – decision-making (e.g. pick 3 ideas) (Sutton: Constraint is your friend)
Mauria Finley: Set rules for when you will micromanage (e.g. ‘When the boss’s boss takes a big interest, I may swoop in’).
Help people understand the structural things that may not work so well and encourage them to help come up with improvements over time
Small Wins. The progress principle
Work out the stepping stones to Big Hairy Audacious Goals (BHAGs)
The best bosses frame what they do as a series of manageable and doable steps, which leads to better decisions, sustains motivation, and stops people from freaking out.
e.g. Use post it notes – What can we do to meet goals? Easy? Hard? Do easy, then attack hard in (say) 2 weeks
Mauria Finley: Keep linking the top-down and bottom-up goals while repeatedly painting the aspirational vision of why we’re here.
People tend to be big picture, or small picture. Help be the auto-correct between those modes.
Get people to build their own successful garden
Got their backs? The best bosses protect their people from harm, intrusions, distractions, indignities, idiots, and idiocy of every stripe.
Henry Mintzberg: Someone once defined a manager, half in jest, as someone who sees the visitors, so that everyone else can get the work done.
Perry Klebahn: Seek consistency, and instil pride in your people for what they do